Financial math basics you need to know

The phrase “financial mathematics” describes the application of arithmetic and mathematical modeling to solve financial problems. Quantitative finance, computational finance, and financial engineering are their additional names. In this subject, statistical, probabilistic, and stochastic process methods are coupled with economic theory. As a student you need to grasp this basic rules of financial maths that you will apply in various industries.

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So, the following are financial math basics you must know.

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1. Quantitative Financial Analysis of Fixed Income Securities

This chapter explains how to do a quantitative financial analysis of fixed income instruments. These debt instruments include bonds, certificates, preferred shares, and other assets that provide a fixed income in the form of interest. To make up for this, preconditional earning is applied. An investment in money is the purchase of securities. Bonds are the primary subclass of fixed-income investments. The bond serves as the emitter’s proof-of-loan record to ensure security. In most circumstances, the bond offers its owner a recurring payment of a specific sum.

The classification of the bonds will depend on how the earnings are allocated, and the debt is serviced.

  1. Bonds have no capital repayment and are solely interest payments. Instead of committing themselves to a particular state, the emitter expresses their potential for salvation.
  2. Bonds that are not paid interest. These bonds are known as zero-coupon bonds.
  3. Bonds require holders to pay the interest and face amount upon repayment.
  4. Bonds that allow owners to collect interest payments each month, as well as the cost of the repayment that comes next once the bond is discharged the most common kind of link is this one.

2. Amounts in percentages

Numerous daily financial decisions involve percentages, such as: Adding up tips, figuring out how much of a sales discount or sales tax holiday you’ll get, and figuring out how much of your paycheck will go to the United Way or your 401(k) (k). It can also involve estimating the percentage increase in gross income that a raise will bring in and estimating the proportion of your income that you donate to your church (or choosing a dollar amount based on 10 percent donating)

Start with the base amount and multiply it by the percentage (convert the percentage to a decimal, for example, 10% = 10%, 3% = 3%, and 25% = 25%). (the list price of an item or your gross income, for example). The result is how much is added on, tipped, contributed to a 401(k), donated to charity, or received in a sales discount.

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3. Credit calculations

Loans, credits, and borrowing were the initial kinds of money. Loan is the meaning of the stressed second syllable in Russian and Latin creditum (credit with the first syllable stressed is the right member of accounting entries). Borrowing, “credit,” and “loan” all relate to the same concept: lending someone money or products over time, typically with interest payments.

People who take out loans are known as debtors, whereas people who sell things or money on credit are known as creditors (or debtors). Credit (loans) can be granted and repaid in various circumstances. Here, only the most popular and straightforward loan repayment choices are considered. To calculate the loan payment, you will need the following information:

Loan conditions, interest, and loan amount.

Use the PMT function to create the following formula in a spreadsheet:

=PMT (interest rate, number of payment periods based on the loan term, and -net present value or the current loan value)

Alternately, you can use the mathematical formula shown below:

Payment: Loan Value x Interest Rate = (1 – POWER (1+Interest Rate, -Number of Payment Periods)) x (1+Interest Rate)

Your actual loan payment may occasionally be different from the computation’s result. the following factors could impact the payment:

*Service charges are now part of your regular expenses.

*Property taxes and insurance are a part of your monthly mortgage payment.

*Mortgage points, sales taxes, and additional expenses that are capitalized (added to) the loan’s principal.

To find any inconsistencies or disparities, compare the anticipated and actual payments.

4. Securities Portfolio Optimization

This section examines the method for constructing a portfolio of risky assets proposed in 1952 by American economist H. Markowitz, who went on to win the Nobel Prize in economics, which forms the basis of the current theory of securities portfolios. Markowitz won the prize for his economic work. Consider a financial transaction in which risky securities are purchased today at a known price and then purchased tomorrow at an uncertain price. It is based on the supposition that the investor has made a specific investment at this moment. 

This money will be held in investments for a fixed period, called the hold period. At the end of the period, the investor sells the securities they bought at the beginning. Therefore, it is necessary to choose to purchase assets at that time if they will stay in the investor’s portfolio until that point. This problem is referred to as the portfolio selection conundrum.


What kind of mathematics is used in the finance industry?

Financial mathematics is the use of mathematical methods to resolve financial problems. (Alternative words like computational finance, quantitative finance, and financial engineering are occasionally used.) It applies probability, statistics, stochastic processes, and economic theory methods.

How is math used in the banking industry?

Math has an impact on the financial decisions we make every day. Math is a part of everyday life, from using coupons at the grocery store to paying our bills. A solid mathematical background and number awareness are very beneficial when working in banking. We use numbers while spending, saving, investing, and creating budgets.


Do you struggle with financial math? We hope that after reading this post, you no longer do. A successful business depends on the owner’s solid understanding of calculating and managing their money. The basics we’ve covered above can help you make financial planning decisions and achieve your financial goals.